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Bloom, Teaching about relict, no-analog landscapes. Geomorphology , See G. Kehew, Catastrophic flood hypothesis for the origin of the Souris spillway, Saskatchewan and North Dakota. Clayton, J. Knox, Catastrophic flooding from Glacial Lake Wisconsin. Lopes, A. Mix, Pleistocene megafloods in the northeast Pacific. Rudoy, V. Baker, Sedimentary effects of cataclysmic late Pleistocene glacial outburst flooding, Altay Mountains, Siberia.
Sedimentary Geology , Furthermore, the first glacial megafloods to be documented in the southern hemisphere have now been reported in S. Austin, J. Gupta, J. Collier, A. Palmer-Felgate, G. Potter, Catastrophic flooding origin of shelf valley systems in the English Channel. Gibbard, Europe cut adrift. Exposed in the east face of Mam Tor is a thick series of sandstone and mudstone layers — and they tell a fascinating story of rapid sedimentation uninterrupted by long time gaps.
Now if the conventional geological dates are correct this whole cliff face must represent something like one million years of geological time. And because there are of these layers in this cliff, that means that these must represent something like ten thousand years of geological time for each layer, but what does the evidence actually tell us?
Well here we have one of these sandstone layers at Mam Tor. On the eighteenth of November in a remarkable event occurred. An earthquake, the Grand Banks earthquake struck the eastern seaboard of Canada and the maritime provinces there, 46 and caused a mass of sediment that was in the shallow water on the continental shelf to slump into deeper water.
Now as that flow travelled it snapped transatlantic cables 47 and so we know exactly how far that flow had travelled and it turns out that in less than 13 hours that slurry of sediment had travelled almost miles and it deposited a layer of sediment about two to three feet thick that covered about one hundred thousand square miles of ocean floor. Geologists call that kind of current a turbidity current and the sediment that it leaves behind is called a turbidite.
Now the significance of this is that these sandstones at Mam Tor are turbidites; 48 these were laid down by that same kind of catastrophic underwater flow, so each of these sandstone layers represents just a few minutes of geological activity. Well if the geological time is not represented by the sandstones perhaps it's represented by these shale layers — the mudstones that you find in between the sandstones — and that's what most geologists I think would assume: that this was mud which was laid down in quiet conditions in between each of these catastrophic turbidite events.
The problem is that if this mud formed the sea floor for an extended period of time then there ought to have been time for animals, marine animals to colonize this sea floor and we really don't see evidence of a normal sea floor community in here. The available evidence suggests that the cliff face at Mam Tor represents a short time interval — not one million years. The same reasoning can be applied to other parts of the geological record and it leads to the same conclusion —larger and larger amounts of time must be accounted for in fewer and fewer layers.
Convincing evidence for long ages of geological time is difficult to find. See J. Cripps, C. Hird, A guide to the landslide at Mam Tor. Geoscientist 2 3 , Doxsee, The Grand Banks earthquake of November 18, Heezen, M. Ewing, Turbidity currents and submarine slumps, and the Grand Banks earthquake. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology , See B. Holdsworth, A preliminary study of the palaeontology and palaeoenvironment of some Namurian limestone 'bullions'.
Mercian Geologist , Piper, Turbidite origin of some laminated mudstones. Geological Magazine , The tranquillity of these cool, running streams and flowing waterfalls in County Antrim provide a wonderful escape for local people and visitors to relax and pass the time. But as we contemplate the slow processes that can be observed going on today, we're faced with important questions about the dates that geologists apply to the rock layers. Haven't sophisticated dating methods been developed that demonstrate conclusively that the earth's rock layers were deposited over vast ages?
The most widely used geological 'clocks' are based on the decay of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes in rocks and minerals like these. This decay process is used to estimate when the rock or mineral sample in question was formed. However, in all of these methods it is necessary to make some assumptions —in particular about the starting conditions, the rate at which the decay process occurred in the past and the history of the sample being dated.
Imagine we wanted to know how much time had passed since the candle started burning. We could work it out if we knew certain things — how long the candle was originally, how fast it had been burning and whether or not it had been tampered with. Likewise, in order to date a rock we need to know how much of the daughter isotope the sample contained in the beginning, how fast the parent isotope had been decaying in the past, and whether the amounts of parent and daughter had been altered by any process other than radioactive decay.
We can verify our assumptions provided a human observer is present. But when dealing with rocks that formed in the past we usually have no way of knowing whether our assumptions are correct. In fact, many lava flows formed during recent volcanic eruptions give very old dates by radioactive methods 53 —revealing problems with the standard assumptions. Carbon is commonly used to date samples of wood, shell or bone. However, carbon decays very quickly compared to some radioactive isotopes — so quickly, in fact, that any samples that were truly millions of years old would not contain any carbon because it would long since have decayed away.
However, the technicians in dating laboratories meticulously clean such samples with hot strong acids and other treatments to remove contamination — and yet the samples still contain measurable amounts of carbon Faure, T. Earth and Planetary Science Letters , Krummenacher, Isotopic composition of argon in modern surface volcanic rocks. McDougall, H. Polach, J. Stipp, Excess radiogenic argon in young subaerial basalts from the Auckland volcanic field, New Zealand.
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta , Fisher, Excess rare gases in a subaerial basalt from Nigeria. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics , Esser, W. McIntosh, M. Heizler, P. Kyle, Excess argon in melt inclusions in zero-age anorthoclase feldspar from Mt.
Noble, J. Naughton, Deep-ocean basalts: inert gas content and uncertainties in age dating. Dalrymple, J. Moore, Argon excess in submarine pillow basalts from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Funkhouser, D. Fisher, E. Bonatti, Excess argon in deep-sea rocks.
Funkhouser, I. Barnes, J. Naughton, Problems in the dating of volcanic rocks by the potassium-argon method. Dymond, Excess argon in submarine basalt pillows. Some years ago, large amounts of helium were discovered in rocks thought to be hundreds of millions of years old. But this puzzled geologists, because helium is very mobile and experiments have shown that it ought to have leaked out of these rocks rather rapidly. One solution to this puzzle is that large amounts of radioactive decay may have taken place in the relatively recent past, say within the last few thousand years.
This raises the intriguing possibility that radioactive decay rates have not always been constant. See R. Gentry, G. Glish, E. McBay, Differential helium retention in zircons: implications for nuclear waste containment. Geophysical Research Letters , Humphreys, J. Baumgardner, A. Snelling, S. Austin, Recently measured helium diffusion rate for zircon suggests inconsistency with U-Pb age for Fenton Hill granodiorite.
At this rate, any carbon-containing materials would have carbon levels below detection limits after 50,, years. For example, see S. Baumgardner, D. Humphreys, A. Austin, The enigma of the ubiquity of 14 C in organic samples older than ka. Nadeau, P. Grootes, A.
Voelker, F. Bruhn, A. Duhr, A. Oriwall, Carbonate 14 C background: does it have multiple personalities? Radiocarbon 43 2A , Rivers and other sources transport more than million tons of salt into the oceans every year. Of course, the amount of salt entering and leaving the ocean may have been different in the past.
However, even the most generous calculations have been unable to explain why the oceans are not much saltier than we observe today. Another well-studied process is the accumulation of sediment on the ocean floor. Most of this sediment is transported into the ocean by rivers.
Estimates of how much sediment is carried into the oceans vary considerably but a conservative estimate is about 20 billion tons per year. In fact, the sediment on the ocean floor averages less than metres thick, 61 causing us to wonder why so much of the expected sediment is missing. Perhaps some of it was recycled by tectonic processes but it's difficult to see how that could resolve the discrepancy completely. Meybeck, Global chemical weathering of surficial rocks estimated from river dissolved loads.
Milliman, J. Hay, J. Sloan, C. Journal of Geophysical Research 93 B12 , Geologists estimate that a continent like North America is being eroded by water and wind at a rate of about 60 millimetres every 1, years. Measured in this way the erosion rate seems very slow, but it suggests that North America could have been worn down to sea level in only 10 million years. According to the conventional timescale, the continents have been around for over three and a half billion years, and in that period the continents could have been completely levelled more than times.
Rates of erosion are even greater in areas of high topographic relief. High mountain ranges such as the Himalayas are being eroded at a rate of about 1, millimetres every 1, years. Even with a very low erosion rate no continent should have remained above sea level after a few hundred million years. Judson, D. Ritter, Rates of regional denudation in the United States. Menard, Some rates of regional erosion. Fossils are the remains or traces of animals and plants that lived in the past.
The remains of most organisms will be lost to decay unless they are buried quickly. In modern environments, sediments are typically laid down too slowly to preserve fossils, but the abundance of fossils in older sediments suggests that they must have been laid down rapidly. The cliffs here are composed of alternating layers of mudstone and limestone which were laid down in a marine environment.
Exposed on the rock ledges are hundreds of fossils of ancient sea creatures, including these coiled shells known as ammonites. Ammonites were advanced predators in the ancient oceans, somewhat similar to the modern nautilus. The fossils preserved on the Dorset coast record the death and burial of large numbers of animals, perhaps in some kind of mass mortality event.
Geologists sometimes refer to such accumulations as fossil graveyards. Another type of fossil graveyard even helps to fuel our economy. Coal is the result of the accumulation, compaction and alteration of plant remains. These thick coal seams are composed of vast amounts of buried vegetation — and what's more, they can often be traced over vast distances. Some individual seams cover hundreds or even thousands of square miles. Consider this petrified log, in which the woody tissues have been replaced by the mineral silica.
Under the right chemical conditions wood can be readily petrified by silica-rich waters, even at normal temperatures and pressures. Hot, mineral-rich fluids had rapidly soaked into the pore spaces in the wood. In experiments the team found that only seven years were needed for this extraordinary process to take place.
Even hard parts such as shells will eventually break down or dissolve in sea water, 73 and fragile shells will break down more quickly than strong shells. If the fossil record formed slowly, with individual rock layers taking hundreds or thousands of years to accumulate, we would expect fragile shell material to be relatively uncommon. Most of the shells we find in the fossil record should be thick and durable.
However, studies have shown that small, thin-shelled fossils are just as likely to be preserved in the fossil record as large, thick-shelled fossils. Rapidly accumulating sediments would have indiscriminately buried both fragile and durable material together.
They include rapid burial, possession of hard parts, burial in fine-grained sediments which helps to preserve detail and a low oxygen environment. The most important of these is rapid burial. This amounts to some o of longitude, and closing up the Atlantic by a mere 40 o does not really help all that much in explaining this remarkable phenomenon. One looks in vain for a similar geographical situation at the present day.
Cohen, An allochthonous peat deposit from southern Florida. Hill, Some aspects of coal research. Chemical Technology, May Hayatsu, R. McBeth, R. Scott, R. Botto, R. Winans, Artificial coalification study: preparation and characterization of synthetic macerals. Organic Geochemistry , Orem, S. Neuzil, H.
Lerch, C. Cecil, Experimental early-stage coalification of a peat sample and a peatified wood sample from Indonesia. Cohen, A. Bailey, Petrographic changes induced by artificial coalification of peat: comparison of two planar facies Rhizophora and Cladium from the Everglades-mangrove complex of Florida and a domed facies Cyrilla from the Okefenokee Swamp of Georgia.
International Journal of Coal Geology , Yao, C. Xue, W. Hu, J. Cao, C. Zhang, A comparative study of experimental maturation of peat, brown coal and subbituminous coal: implications for coalification. See also A. Davis, W. Spackman, The role of the cellulosic and lignitic components of wood in artificial coalification. Fuel , McCafferty, Instant petrified wood?
Popular Science, October Hicks, Mineralized sodium silicate solutions for artificial petrification of wood. United States Patent Number , 16 September W Drum, Silicification of Betula woody tissue in vitro. Leo, E. Barghoorn, Silicification of wood. Harvard University Botanical Museum Leaflets , Merrill, R. Spencer, Sorption of sodium silicates and silicate sols by cellulose fibers. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry , Akahane, T. Furuno, H. Miyajima, T. Yoshikawa, S. Yamamoto, Rapid wood silicification in hot spring water: an explanation of silicification of wood during the Earth's history.
Best, S. Kidwell, Bivalve taphonomy in tropical mixed siliciclastic-carbonate settings. Environmental variation in shell condition. Paleobiology , Kidwell, M. Best, D. Kaufman, Taphonomic trade-offs in tropical marine death assemblages: differential time averaging, shell loss, and probable bias in siliciclastic vs. Kidwell, K. Flessa, The quality of the fossil record: populations, species, and communities. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science , Olszewski, Modeling the influence of taphonomic destruction, reworking, and burial on time-averaging in fossil accumulations.
Palaios , Behrensmeyer, F. Gastaldo, S. Kosnik, M. Kowalewski, R. Plotnick, R. Rogers, J. Alroy, Are the most durable shelly taxa also the most common in the marine fossil record? Some deposits appear to have required longer periods of time or to have been deposited under calm conditions. Mudstones are among the most difficult rocks to explain by catastrophic processes.
As in the case of the mudstone layers at Mam Tor, they are usually thought to have been laid down by the very slow settling of fine particles of clay in quiet water. Under turbulent conditions, mud gets stirred up and is only re-deposited when tranquil conditions are resumed. Even then, the mud particles take a long time to settle out into layers. For this reason, it's been assumed that layers of mudstone, like these ones in Kimmeridge Bay in Dorset, must have taken thousands or even millions of years to be laid down.
Furthermore, mudstones are very common rocks, 75 comprising up to three-quarters of the entire sedimentary record, so this is a very significant problem for catastrophism. Once again, however, conventional thinking about mudstones is being challenged by recent research. Geologists have known for some time that fine mud particles have a tendency to clump together into fluffy or lumpy flakes about the size of sand grains. This process causes the mud to settle out of suspension much more rapidly than it would as individual mud particles.
Laboratory experiments have now shown how this remarkable process allows mud to be transported and deposited quickly by flowing water currents. Macquaker, K. Bohacs, On the accumulation of mud. Quotation on p. Schieber, J. Southard, K. Thaisen, Accretion of mudstone beds from migrating floccule ripples. Southard, Bedload transport of mud by floccule ripples — direct observation of ripple migration processes and their implications.
Wignall, Sedimentary dynamics of the Kimmeridge Clay: tempests and earthquakes. See also E. Bailey, J. Weir, Submarine faulting in Kimmeridgian times: east Sutherland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh , Chalk is a soft and often crumbly limestone composed of the remains of billions of tiny marine creatures.
These tiny particles once made up the shell-like structures of microscopic algae. Similar algae can be found living in the surface waters of our oceans today. Most geologists think that the great thicknesses of chalk, like these seen on the south coast of England, accumulated very slowly in just this fashion. Based on current rates of accumulation, it would take about , years for three feet of chalk to build up.
If similar rates applied in the past, very long periods of time would be required to form the hundreds of feet of chalk that we see in the geological record. But there are some problems with the standard theory of chalk formation. For example, modern chalky sediments tend to build up in the very deep ocean — but there's abundant evidence that the ancient chalk was laid down in shallow water. It's composed almost entirely of shelly material with very little mixture of other sediments.
These facts cause us to question whether the slow accumulation of chalk ooze in the deep ocean is really a good model for understanding how the chalk beds of the geological record were laid down. Could large amounts of chalk have built up quickly in the past? Given suitable conditions, the answer seems to be yes. Recent studies have shown that the concentration of marine algae in sea water increases dramatically under the right conditions of turbulence, nutrients and temperature.
It is quite conceivable that intense blooms could have been generated during catastrophic events in earth history, resulting in the rapid production of large amounts of chalk. In fact rapid deposition would explain why the chalk layers in the geological record are so pure — there simply wasn't enough time for other sediments to get mixed in. There is also growing evidence that the ancient chalk sea was far from calm and placid.
Many of the fossils in the chalk must have been rapidly buried in order to account for their excellent preservation. The chalk is sometimes piled into great heaps and banks over feet high, indicating the activity of strong currents. Hancock, The petrology of the Chalk. Paasche, Biology and physiology of coccolithophorids. Annual Review of Microbiology , Black, Coccoliths. Endeavour , By contrast, the Upper Cretaceous Chalk probably built up in water m deep. See Hancock, The petrology of the Chalk, pp.
The remarkably pure organic Chalk is almost completely without any trace of land-derived sediment. Seliger, J. Carpenter, M. Loftus, W. McElroy, Mechanisms for the accumulation of high concentrations of dinoflagellates in a bioluminescent bay. Limnology and Oceanography , Wilson, A. Collier, Preliminary notes on the culturing of Gymnodinium brevis Davis.
Ballantine, B. Abbott, Toxic marine flagellates; their occurrence and physiological effects on animals. Journal of General Microbiology , Pingree, P. Holligan, R. Head, Survival of dinoflagellate blooms in the western English Channel.
Stanley, J. Ries, L. Hardie, Seawater chemistry, coccolithophore population growth, and the origin of Cretaceous chalk. See also N. Meskhidze, W. Chameides, A. Nenes, Dust and pollution: a recipe for enhanced ocean fertilization? Journal of Geophysical Research — Atmospheres D, Pearce, Extra iron makes blue deserts bloom.
New Scientist :4, Kennedy, P. Sedimentology , Mortimore, B. Ekdale, R. Bromley, E. Nygaard, Allochthonous chalk in northwestern Europe. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs , Wray, A. Gale, The palaeoenvironment and stratigraphy of Late Cretaceous Chalks.
See D. Chapter 3: Southern Province, England. However, one would expect it to be possible to find examples of coccolith-dominated pelagic sediment forming at an intermediate depth, but no exact analogue of Cretaceous chalk can yet be quoted. Hancock, The significance of Maurice Black's work on the Chalk, pp.
Jeans, P. Rawson eds. Freeman and Company, Oxford, , pp. Was Hutton correct when he said that there was conclusive evidence of long geological timescales at Siccar Point? First of all notice these greywackes. Modern erosion differentially weathers the softer shales and the more resistant sandstones stand out. We don't see that underneath of the flat unconformity that was described by James Hutton — instead the shales and the sandstones are uniformly worn away, and we think that's evidence that this contact was made very quickly and not exposed for long periods of time as Hutton suggested.
What could have caused the hard and soft layers to be planed off equally? Slow and gradual erosion today always produces an uneven surface. But the evidence at Siccar Point suggests the kind of violent and sheet-like erosion associated with the run-off of water during a catastrophic event. PAUL GARNER: One of the other things to notice here at Siccar Point is the nature of this breccia bed 90 which is directly above the unconformity surface, above the erosion surface, and if we take a close look at it we can see that it's made up of broken pieces of other rocks including the rocks that are found below the unconformity — the Silurian greywackes, the shales and sandstones — and when we take a look at these pieces of broken rock we find that there's a whole range of sizes from very small fragments to much larger fragments.
We also find that the fragments are very angular, they have jagged sharp edges and what this tells us is that this deposit did not take very long to be laid down. If these fragments had been rolling around on an ancient surface for a long time they would have become sorted and graded by size and shape and the edges would have become smoothed and rounded and everything that we see here in this breccia deposit tells us that it was laid down rapidly and catastrophically.
Clearly there wasn't enough time for the eroded cobbles and boulders to become smooth and rounded, and sorted by size and shape. It seems that whatever eroded the unconformity surface must have done so quickly. The first term has been very busy — there is always so much going on at BGS. It was my goal to spend this term getting to know the girls and staff and the routines of the school.
As we talk, Carolyn frequently takes time out to speak to staff and girls and deal with dayto-day aspects of running a thriving Junior School. Returning to the conversation, she is un-phased by the interruptions and clearly enjoys the varied nature of her post. We ask her if a normal day is always so hectic. When I get the chance I also enjoy a good mooch around the shops! She possesses an inner calmness that seems to project upon those around her, however busy school life becomes.
It seems pertinent to ask if she always knew these skills would prove invaluable as a Head Teacher. We now know so much more about learning styles and how the brain actually acquires knowledge and skills and can fine tune our teaching practices according to what works for girls. We provide an environment where girls feel comfortable taking risks and challenging stereotypes. I think the biggest challenge for Heads today is making sure that our school reflects and embraces the world we live in.
Early on in my career I was fortunate to work in schools where teachers were given a lot of responsibility. I have clear ideas about what I want to achieve and a strong desire to ensure that quality learning and pupil engagement takes place in every aspect of school life which is what drove me to becoming a Head. It gave me the confidence to believe that as I approached adulthood I could achieve absolutely anything. With that, a group of Year 3 girls begin to arrive and all greet Carolyn warmly.
When all are present and met with a personal welcome, she smiles warmly before closing the door and immersing herself once more in the job she loves. The Muse 06 Science: a gender issue? Our Junior School is equipped with its own laboratory, and both the Senior and Junior School work closely to ensure opportunities for the girls to explore the world of science are on offer in the curriculum and cocurriculum.
Recently we have collaborated on a Science Museum sleepover trip, where both Junior School and Senior School staff spent a night the museum with Year 6, exploring electricity and magnetism and watching a fascinating Imax film on how repairs were carried out on the Hubble telescope.
Because of this the girls develop their confidence in the laboratory and have a raised awareness of the three main scientific disciplines from an early age. Physics and Chemistry are also thriving with a yearly increase in numbers. Through the study of science girls are able to develop many invaluable skills and a heightened curiosity about the world around them. They are encouraged to explore traditional scientific concepts and their practical applications and to acquire the skills necessary to conduct research through extensive practical experience.
Our wide range of co-curricular activities enables the girls to broaden this experience beyond the classroom. For example, we have a thriving Biology and Chemistry club and a team working alongside Technology developing an electric car. Our Eco-Council is promoting good environmental practice around the school, and this year we are running a Forensic Science trip to the Isle of Wight with Year 8, which has been oversubscribed.
Our Years 12 and 13 students also run a Medical Society, attend a variety of lectures from leading scientists in their fields as part of the Harpur Trust Science Forum, participate in Science Olympiad Competitions, enter Science Essay writing competitions, and support the girls lower down the school by taking an active role in the co-curricular opportunities available.
The senior girls are also keen to extend their academic knowledge beyond the curriculum through their involvement in the YASS project, where they complete Science modules accredited by the Open University, and the CREST Award scheme, where girls participate in extended projects, supported by scientists. Outside normal school hours, our careers team encourages and supports involvement in courses and seminars run by outside agencies such as universities and the Smallpeice Trust.
In contrast, our girls feel positive about careers in science and pupils, such as Nikita Bascombe, who was awarded a Gold Crest Award for her work and research at Cranfield University over the summer, are already flying high. It links the personal passions of students to curriculum-based learning and is well-respected by all.
That girls from our school are excelling like this speaks volumes. Its then up to us to ensure they actually know the significance of her work on x-ray images of DNA. Learning about such role models is inspiring for the girls and makes them think about the opportunities available to them. Later she gained a place at Girton College, which was then single sex but she was one of only eight girls out of more than overall in physics. The Muse 08 International Insight Internationally recognised, well-regarded by universities and employers and with no examinations in Year 12, the International Baccalaureate Diploma sounds like the ideal post 16 qualification for anyone wanting to get ahead in Higher Education and the workplace.
H owever, its reputation as a challenging and rigorous course of study can be off putting for some students who continue to see it as a curriculum suited only to the academic elite. Others are worried at the prospect of studying Mathematics and a language for a further two years while those who dislike English often want to drop it.
Girls with a keen interest in Science worry that their university options might be better served by specialising at A Level and students with a passion for the arts could consider their creative opportunities diminished. For whatever reason, the notion that the IB is not for everyone still persists. In Year 11, did you ever think the IB might not be the best programme of study for you?
VB: My biggest concern was taking Higher Mathematics because people kept telling me how difficult it was. I want to study Physics at University so studying it at Higher Level was inevitable. It certainly crossed my mind that taking Further Mathematics at A Level might be a safer option and secure me a better grade! I did wonder whether continuing with it was the right thing to do and whether it would be possible for me to achieve a high total score while studying my least favourite subject.
The structure of the diploma is very different from A Level and I did question how easily I would adapt to a different style of learning. HV: I am not a science-y person. Everyone who takes IB has that one kryptonite subject but that is only to be expected from a course designed for such breadth. How did you set about addressing your worries and electing to take IB after all?
JR: I realised that I love so many subjects that dropping over half to study A Level would not be easy. I also weighed up the amount IB changes you as a person and how it lets you look at things from a new angle, with lessons like Theory of Knowledge. The structuring of the lessons is different. For example, in English you study more books, including books in translation, so you gain a broader outlook on life and in History you study more international History and compare the histories of different countries more.
I sort of came to the point of view therefore that - if life is a journey and the meaning of life is enjoying that journey - then growing as a person is just as important as good grades. I just knew that IB would deliver this for me.
VB: Because of my specific worries about Higher Mathematics, I spoke to a number of girls who had previously studied at that level. They generally said that Higher Mathematics is fine for people who really enjoy the subject and coped well with it at GCSE. What really persuaded me was reading the History course. I absolutely loved the prospect of studying Russian and Chinese History.
HV: I spent a long time considering the structure of the IB and what it could offer me as a fluid two year course rather than split like AS and A Level. I just felt that if those 6 months could make such a difference in my results then imagine how wide the gap could be at AS and A Level? EM: Both of my parents have taught the IB and, together with the school, were able to explain the marking system to me very clearly. I love the opportunities the course gives you, not just to grow intellectually, but also to make new friends and to be part of a community.
EM: IB was definitely the right choice for me and I really enjoy the challenge of independent study. The structure of the programme really helps you to focus and help and support are readily provided by all the teachers. JR: IB is challenging but the idea that the workload leaves no time for anything else is a myth. Everyone in the class is really passionate about the subject, which makes it a nicer environment for learning. The teachers are particularly supportive because they want you to do well.
What would you say to girls who are undecided about taking the IB? VB: I would tell others thinking about taking higher level Maths, not to be put off by the fact that hardly anyone gets a 7, because there are classes where all the students who took higher level maths got a 7, and that it is often just as difficult to get a 7 in other higher level subjects. If you really enjoy the subject, and you would consider studying at University, then go for it!
I am still new at it but I have been completely converted. You should be under no illusions. A Level is a lot of work too. Actually, anything other than an eReader, which I find more like a scroll. A book that always makes me laugh The Private Eye annual and the magazine itself. The moment is very tense, and there has just been a serious fight between two other characters in the scene.
And at the very time when a straight face is most desirable, Joe finds himself weeping, snorting, even, with laughter over childish jokes. But actually, Anglo-Saxon verse really needs to be read aloud, in the original.
I love the Germanic verbs and raw vowel sounds. I tried a short extract from a poem depicting the battle of Maldon on one of my classes. My favourite bookshop The aptly-named Treasure Chest, in Suffolk, by the coast. It has miles of shelves literally , and alcoves where you can sit, on the floor, and read fairly undisturbed. It has something on just about every subject you might want to know about - from topiary or skydiving to resuscitating a hamster probably. Which could be grimly life-threatening.
A book to give Well - a book someone gave me recently is a rather large encylopaedia of British plants. Poor fraxinus excelsior. I am quite a diverse person and I love many places in the area. For example, I love the cinema most notably for its supersalty popcorn , I love the chair I habitually sit on at meal times and I especially love my bed. It is further away from the sea than any other point in Britain and yet the water that falls from the sky sometimes feels like it could fill an ocean.
I have often visited what I view as comparable paradises on the coastline of Britain, the kind of places with arcades and brass bands that underscore your day trip. How fantastic would it be to have the choice to chat with your friends on the sand, breathing in fresh, salty air rather than inhaling exhaust fumes in an overcrowded 11 The Muse town, browsing through a dismal shop in an effort to keep warm? I think that is one of the reasons why I am so attached to Shingle Beach: it is like my own little seaside except smaller and with fewer tourists.
A shingle is, according to Ventiseis, a slightly bigger pebble and thus Shingle Beach is a treasure trove of quality skimming-stones. I have whiled away many a morning at Shingle Beach skimming stones and afternoons vainly taking pictures here with my friend. At the end of the day, the reason why I would choose Shingle Beach over places I frequent much more often, such as the cinema or my bed, is because I do love that beach.
I love how small it is, I love how I can sit there and watch the waves lap for hours and I love how it seems miles away from the urbanity of Bedford town. However, overall I think that my favourite aspect of Shingle Beach is that the Ventiseis have adorned it with a theme tune and our rendition of the slightly revised Echo Beach originally by Martha and the Muffins has much more life than any seaside brass band could muster. The girls also relish seeing their plans and strategies affect real changes and achieve measurable results.
What might be less obvious are the considerable academic, social and emotional benefits the girls acquire through their involvement with the co-curricular force behind our ethical environmental strategy. From the Junior School to the Sixth Form, it is the girls on our Eco-Council who shape, implement and guide our environmental policy through a wealth of activities, actions and projects.
As well as demonstrating how acting locally really can impact globally, it has offered the girls a broad range of experiences that have enhanced their learning and developed their understanding of the international importance of subjects such as Science and Geography. Above all, it has empowered them to play a pivotal role in realising our vision for a truly connected community through teamwork and sharing what they know with peers, parents and staff.
They are extremely enthusiastic about getting involved with the Eco-Council and appreciate being able to have a say in the really important issues surrounding global sustainability. Perhaps most importantly, it helps them to start thinking about how careers in science, engineering and conservation can be extremely rewarding and make the world a better place. A further bonus of involvement with the Eco-Council is the opportunity it affords for the girls to learn in the field and experience the manifold virtues of the great outdoors.
Together with the Biology department it has also been given the gardens behind Burnaby House where it will create a space for practical work and for growing plants and produce. The girls are also undertaking outreach work in conjunction with the local council, encouraging people to grow their own fruit and vegetables. Before Christmas, as the weather became increasingly wet, The Muse 12 Girls go green Continued the eco-club wrapped-up warm to make compost and braved the elements to prepare their allotment space for planting in the spring.
As well as simply savoring the joy of being immersed in nature, getting outside and working in all weathers really helps the girl develop their confidence as practical people who can make really positive changes. This assists them in every area of the curriculum and encourages them to try new things and not be daunted by tasks and challenges sometimes thought of as traditionally masculine. Last summer, a group of girls spent a day at Stibbington Field Studies Centre in Peterborough for a special Ecology workshop.
As the first senior school in Bedfordshire to reach the coveted benchmark, the Eco-Council has worked hard and innovatively to retain its reputation as a local leader in environmental issues. Through sharing this expertise with others, they have also learnt that by making considered choices and affecting direct change they can influence their parents, their peers, their school and - ultimately the collective future of us all. Walking to and from school: Swapping the car for the pavement, even just once a week, can make a huge difference to the environment and our health.
We have been heartened by the warm response our plans have received. Increased parking provided for parents and Sixth Formers has been welcomed, our free afterschool care has been widely adopted, helping to stagger the number of vehicles leaving the site, and the smoother flow of traffic and greater consideration of parents on Cardington Road have been much appreciated by our local residents.
Car sharing is also ideal for weekend and after-school sporting fixtures. However, as the Eco-Council is keen to remind us, we can always do more to reduce our carbon footprint and play our role in safeguarding the environment. In order to support their aims, and to fulfill our own responsibilities as global citizens, we are continuing to ask parents to consider how they can reduce the environmental impact of their journey to and from school. Please take the time to reflect on your journey to school and evaluate whether any of these options are for you: Buses and Trains: Cardington Road is well served by buses and is within walking distance of two train stations.
Buses serving the school are run by private operators but are often restricted to use by Harpur Trust pupils. Cycling: Fast, efficient and a passport to freedom, travelling by bike is environmentally sound and extremely liberating. Next term, we are offering places on the Bikeability safety scheme. A full version of our Travel Plan can be found on the school website, alongside details of buses and trains serving the school, footpaths and cycle ways and more information about registering for our Car Share Scheme.
P laying on muddy pitches is now a thing of the past and the game is played solely on artificial grass. Improved carbon fibre hockey sticks mean the ball travels much faster, increasing the pace and excitement of the sport. The consistent surface of the Astroturf offers scope for a much higher-level of skill, making it great to watch and much more rewarding to play.
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|Live nba title odds||Of course, the amount of salt entering and leaving the ocean may have been different in the past. See Hancock, The petrology of the Chalk, pp. Journal of Geology She possesses an inner calmness that seems to project upon those around her, however busy school life becomes. A full version of our Travel Plan can be found on the school website, alongside details of buses and trains serving the school, footpaths and cycle ways and more information about registering for our Car Share Scheme. Milliman, J.|
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